Mind the End of Your Line
One of the most frequent questions I answer about Git is why dealing with line endings is so difficult. This is an attempt to answer that question and explain the myriad of options and settings that control line endings in Git.
Git has gone through two systems for dealing with line endings in repositories.
The root of the problem being that Unix, Linux and OS X use
CRLF to denote the end of a line. Previous to OS X,
Mac actually used
CR, but for the most part we can ignore that.
None of this would be a problem if we each lived in our own little worlds and never shared code between operating systems. And by share I mean everything from working on a cross platform project to copy-pasting code out of a browser. In fact, anytime you download a sample project in a zip file, copy code out of a gist, copy code from someones blog or use code out of a file that you keep in Dropbox - you are sharing text and you need to deal with these invisible line-ending characters. All of these activities potentially introduce a different set of line endings into your code base which is going to make diffs messy and Git generally unhappy.
Git's primary solution to all this is to specify that
LF is the best way to
store line endings for text files in a Git repository's object database. It
doesn't force this on you but most developers using Git and GitHub have adopted
this as a convention and even our own
help recommends setting up your config
to do this.
Before describing the settings that control line endings in Git, there are a
couple of things you need to know about:
core.eol and what it means
to write something to the object database.
End of line
The first setting you need to know about is
core.eol. In all but
the rarest of cases you should never have to change this setting from it's
default. This setting doesn't do much on its own, but as soon as we start
telling Git to change our line endings for us we need to know the value of
core.eol. This setting is used by all the other things we are going
to talk about below, so it's good to know that it exists and good to know that
you probably don't want to change it.
core.eol = nativeThe default. When Git needs to change line endings to write a file in your working directory it will change them to whatever is the default line ending on your platform. For Windows this will be
CRLF, for Unix/Linux/OS X this will be
core.eol = crlfWhen Git needs to change line endings to write a file in your working directory it will always use
CRLFto denote end of line.
core.eol = lfWhen Git needs to change line endings to write a file in your working directory it will always use
LFto denote end of line.
You can run
git config --global core.eol to see what this value is set to on your system. If nothing comes back that means you are on the using the default which is
In and out of the object database
What is the object database? I'm going to talk a lot about two different operations: writing to the object database and writing out to the working directory. It helps to understand these concepts a bit before moving on.
You may already know that Git has it's own database in that
.git folder which Scott does a great job of explaining in Chapter 9 of his Pro Git book. All you need to know is that when you do something like
git commit you are writing objects into the database. This involves taking the files that you are committing, calculating their shas and writing them into the object database as blobs. This is what I mean when I say writing to the object database and this is when Git has a chance to run filters and do things like converting line endings.
The other place that Git has a chance to run filters is when it reads out of the object database and writes files into your working directory. This is what I mean when I say writing out into the working directory. Many commands in Git do this, but
git checkout is the most obvious and easy to understand. This also happens when you do a
git clone or run a command like
git reset that changes your working directory.
The Old System
First, let's talk about the old system. This is the original set of features in Git designed to solve this particular problem of line endings. There is a good chance you are still using this system and don't even know. Here is how it works: Git has a configuration setting called
core.autocrlf which is specifically designed to make sure that when a text file is written to the repository's object database that all line endings in that text file are normalized to
LF. Here are the different options for
core.autocrlf and what they mean:
core.autocrlf = falseThis is the default, but most people are encouraged to change this immediately. The result of using false is that Git doesn't ever mess with line endings on your file. You can check in files with
CRor some random mix of those three and Git does not care. This can make diffs harder to read and merges more difficult. Most people working in a Unix/Linux world use this value because they don't have
CRLFproblems and they don't need Git to be doing extra work whenever files are written to the object database or written out into the working directory.
core.autocrlf = trueThis means that Git will process all text files and make sure that
CRLFis replaced with
LFwhen writing that file to the object database and turn all
CRLFwhen writing out into the working directory. This is the recommended setting on Windows because it ensures that your repository can be used on other platforms while retaining
CRLFin your working directory.
core.autocrlf = inputThis means that Git will process all text files and make sure that
CRLFis replaced with
LFwhen writing that file to the object database. It will not, however, do the reverse. When you read files back out of the object database and write them into the working directory they will still have
LFs to denote the end of line. This setting is generally used on Unix/Linux/OS X to prevent
CRLFs from getting written into the repository. The idea being that if you pasted code from a web browser and accidentally got
CRLFs into one of your files, Git would make sure they were replaced with
LFs when you wrote to the object database.
You can run
git config --global core.autocrlf to see what this value is set to on your system. If nothing comes back that means you are on the using the default which is
How does Git know that a file is text? Good question. Git has an internal method for heuristically checking if a file is binary or not. A file is deemed text if it is not binary. Git can sometimes be wrong and this is the basis for our next setting.
The next setting that was introduced is
core.safecrlf which is designed to protect against these cases where Git might change line endings on a file that really should just be left alone.
core.safecrlf = true- When getting ready to run this operation of replacing
LFbefore writing to the object database, Git will make sure that it can actually successfully back out of the operation. It will verify that the reverse can happen (
CRLF) and if not the operation will be aborted.
core.safecrlf = warn- Same as above, but instead of aborting the operation, Git will just warn you that something bad might happen.
One final layer on all this is that you can create a file called
.gitattributes in the root of your repository and add rules for specific files. These rules allow you to control things like
autocrlf on a per file basis. So you could, for instance, put this in that file to tell Git to always replace
LF in txt files:
Or you could do this to tell Git to never replace
LF for txt files like this:
Or you could do this to tell Git to only replace
LF when writing, but to read back
LF when writing the working directory for txt files like this:
OK. Got all that? See all the problems and the mess we've made? It gets worse when you start working on projects that push you towards different global settings. Enter the new system which is available in Git 1.7.2 and above.
The New System
The new system moves to defining all of this in the
.gitattributes file that you keep with your repository. This means that line endings can be encapsulated entirely within a repository and don't depend on everyone having the proper global settings.
In the new system you are in charge of telling git which files you would like
LF replacement to be done on. This is done with a
text attribute in your repository's
.gitattributes file. In this case the man page is actually quite helpful. Here are some examples of using the
*.txt textSet all files matching the filter *.txt to be text. This means that Git will run
LFreplacement on these files every time they are written to the object database and the reverse replacement will be run when writing out to the working directory.
*.txt -textUnset all files matching the filter. These files will never run through the
*.txt text=autoSet all files matching the filter to be converted (
LF) if those files are determined by Git to be text and not binary. This relies on Git's built in binary detection heuristics.
If a file is unspecified then Git falls back to the
core.autocrlf setting and you are back in the old system. This is how backwards compatibility is maintained, but I would recommend (especially for Windows developers) that you explicitly create a
Here is an example you might use for a C# project:
# These files are text and should be normalized (convert crlf => lf) *.cs text diff=csharp *.xaml text *.csproj text *.sln text *.tt text *.ps1 text *.cmd text *.msbuild text *.md text # Images should be treated as binary # (binary is a macro for -text -diff) *.png binary *.jepg binary *.sdf binary
One final note that the man page for gitattributes mentions is that you can tell git to detect all text files and automatically normalize them (convert
This is certainly better than requiring everyone to be on the same global
core.autocrlf, but it means that you really trust Git
to do binary detection properly. In my opinion it is better to explicitly
specify your text files that you want normalized. Don't forget if you are going
to use this setting that it should be the first line in your .gitattributes file
so that subsequent lines can override that setting.